Goh Zhu Hang Tony Hadibarata


Government plays the most important role in improving the waste management system. Incineration system can be introduced into the waste management system to incinerate specific type of waste. This will increase the availability space for the landfilling process. However, the incineration process must be carried out with full pollution control system to prevent and minimize the pollution that might cause during the incineration process. Other than that, the government should encourage the public to separate out the waste into different categories before the collection of the waste by the waste management company. This can be implemented by providing guideline for the separation of waste methods as well as encouraging the public to be responsible for own produced waste. The dumpsites must also be improved and it is suggested that all dumpsites used are engineered sanitary landfill. An engineered sanitary landfill will reduce the impact of the pollution towards the environment to the minimum. Better tools also must be included in the sanitary landfill system to monitor the condition of the landfill site. This will prevent the happen of any unexpected conditions and can be resolve before the happening of the unexpected condition. Last but not least, the government should implement new charging fee system for the waste management. The charging fee should be based on the rate of waste generated but not flat pricing. This will help in reducing the waste generated as all individuals must pay for their own generated waste. The earth belongs to everyone which indicates everyone have the responsible to keep the earth clean and to reduce the waste produce.


Download data is not yet available.


How to Cite
Zhu Hang, G., & Hadibarata, T. (2022). A review of current status, challenges, and solution to improve waste management. Environmental and Toxicology Management, 2(1), 21–25. https://doi.org/10.33086/etm.v2i1.2913
Waste management, waste disposal, environmental health, sanitary landfill


Alagöz, A. Z. and Kocasoy, G., 2008. Improvement and modification of the routing system for the health-care waste collection and transportation in İstanbul. Waste Manage. 28, 1461-1471

Alavi Moghadam, M. R., Mokhtarani, N. and Mokhtarani, B., 2009. Municipal solid waste management in Rasht City, Iran. Waste Manage. 29, 485-489

Biswas, A. K., Kumar, S., Babu, S. S., Bhattacharyya, J. K. and Chakrabarti, T., 2010. Studies on environmental quality in and around municipal solid waste dumpsite. Resour Conserv Recycl. 55, 129-134

Budhiarta, I., Siwar, C. and Basri, H., 2012. Current status of municipal solid waste generation in Malaysia. International Journal on Advanced Science Engineering Information Technology. 2, 16-21

Burnley, S. J., 2007. A review of municipal solid waste composition in the United Kingdom. Waste Manage. 27, 1274-1285

Cheng, H., Zhang, Y., Meng, A. and Li, Q., 2007. Municipal solid waste fueled power generation in China: a case study of waste-to-energy in Changchun city. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 7509-7515

Chung, S. S. and Lo, C. W., 2008. Local waste management constraints and waste administrators in China. Waste Manage. 28, 272-281

Chung, S. S. and Poon, C. S., 2001. A comparison of waste-reduction practices and new environmental paradigm of rural and urban Chinese citizens. J. Environ. Manage. 62, 3-19

Dennison, G. J., Dodd, V. A. and Whelan, B., 1996. A socio-economic based survey of household waste characteristics in the city of Dublin, Ireland. I. Waste composition. Resour Conserv Recycl. 17, 227-244

Hazra, T. and Goel, S., 2009. Solid waste management in Kolkata, India: Practices and challenges. Waste Manage. 29, 470-478

Henry, R. K., Yongsheng, Z. and Jun, D., 2006. Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries – Kenyan case study. Waste Manage. 26, 92-100

HMGN, M., 2003. Nepal population report 2060. Published by His Majestys Government of Nepal (HMGN), Ministry of Population and Environment (MoPE)(in Nepali).

Huang, Q., Wang, Q., Dong, L., Xi, B. and Zhou, B., 2006. The current situation of solid waste management in China. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management. 8, 63-69

Hui, Y., Li’ao, W., Fenwei, S. and Gang, H., 2006. Urban solid waste management in Chongqing: Challenges and opportunities. Waste Manage. 26, 1052-1062

Kathirvale, S., Muhd Yunus, M. N., Sopian, K. and Samsuddin, A. H., 2004. Energy potential from municipal solid waste in Malaysia. Renew. Energy. 29, 559-567

Li, S., 2002. Junk-buyers as the linkage between waste sources and redemption depots in urban China: the case of Wuhan. Resour Conserv Recycl. 36, 319-335

Liu, Z., Liu, Z. and Li, X., 2006. Status and prospect of the application of municipal solid waste incineration in China. Applied Thermal Engineering. 26, 1193-1197

Manaf, L. A., Samah, M. A. A. and Zukki, N. I. M., 2009. Municipal solid waste management in Malaysia: Practices and challenges. Waste Manage. 29, 2902-2906

Matell, M. S. and Jacoby, J., 1971. Is There an Optimal Number of Alternatives for Likert Scale Items? Study I: Reliability and Validity. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 31, 657-674

Matete, N. and Trois, C., 2008. Towards Zero Waste in emerging countries – A South African experience. Waste Manage. 28, 1480-1492

Minghua, Z., Xiumin, F., Rovetta, A., Qichang, H., Vicentini, F., Bingkai, L., Giusti, A. and Yi, L., 2009. Municipal solid waste management in Pudong new area, China. Waste Manage. 29, 1227-1233

Mrayyan, B. and Hamdi, M. R., 2006. Management approaches to integrated solid waste in industrialized zones in Jordan: A case of Zarqa City. Waste Manage. 26, 195-205

Qdais, H. A., Hamoda, M. and Newham, J., 1997. Analysis of residential solid waste at generation sites. Waste Management & Research. 15, 395-406

Seik, F. T., 1997. Recycling of domestic waste: Early experiences in Singapore. Habitat International. 21, 277-289

Shekdar, A. V., 2009. Sustainable solid waste management: An integrated approach for Asian countries. Waste Manage. 29, 1438-1448

Suocheng, D., Tong, K. W. and Yuping, W., 2001. Municipal solid waste management in China: using commercial management to solve a growing problem. Utilities Policy. 10, 7-11

Tınmaz, E. and Demir, İ., 2006. Research on solid waste management system: To improve existing situation in Çorlu Town of Turkey. Waste Manage. 26, 307-314

Wang, J., Han, L. and Li, S., 2008. The collection system for residential recyclables in communities in Haidian District, Beijing: A possible approach for China recycling. Waste Manage. 28, 1672-1680

Xiao, Y., Bai, X., Ouyang, Z., Zheng, H. and Xing, F., 2007. The composition, trend and impact of urban solid waste in Beijing. Environ. Monit. Assess. 135, 21-30

Yang, N., Damgaard, A., Kjeldsen, P., Shao, L.-M. and He, P.-J., 2015. Quantification of regional leachate variance from municipal solid waste landfills in China. Waste Manage. 46, 362-372

Yunus, M. and Kadir, K., 2003. The development of solid waste treatment technology based on refuse derived fuel and biogasification integration. Journal. 14-17

Zhuang, Y., Wu, S.-W., Wang, Y.-L., Wu, W.-X. and Chen, Y.-X., 2008. Source separation of household waste: A case study in China. Waste Manage. 28, 2022-2030

Most read articles by the same author(s)