Anisa Ratnasari Arya Bhaskara Adiprabowo Andhika Gilang Al Afgani Atik Widiyanti Lily Oktavia


Although Malaysia has abundant water resources, some parts of Malaysia are currently facing water shortage problems. The increasing demand for water has sparked initiatives to seek alternative water supplies. Rainwater harvesting has been proposed by governments as part of the solution to alleviate the problem of water scarcity. Literature related to rainwater harvesting is available from a variety of sources. In this study, rainfall was analysed as a crucial factor affecting RWHS efficiency, rainwater potential at different zones for residential, industrial, and commercial. In addition, the study evaluated the rainwater quality that obtain fresh rainfall and roof rainfall. Furthermore, potential of treatment technology for rainwater was suggested to optimate rainwater harvesting.


Download data is not yet available.


How to Cite
Ratnasari, A., Bhaskara Adiprabowo, A. ., Gilang Al Afgani, A. ., Widiyanti, A., & Oktavia, L. . (2022). Potential of rainwater harvesting in wilayah persekutuan Malaysia. Environmental and Toxicology Management, 2(2), 4–7. https://doi.org/10.33086/etm.v2i2.3410
rainwater harvesting, rainfall patterns, continuous dry days, annual rainfall


Arthington, A. H., Kennen, J. G., Stein, E. D. andWebb, J. A., 2018. Recent advances in environmental flows science and water management—Innovation in the Anthropocene. Freshw. Biol. 63, 1022-1034 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/fwb.13108

Abdulla, F., 2020. Rainwater harvesting in Jordan: potential water saving, optimal tank sizing and economic analysis. Urban Water J. 17, 446-456 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1573062X.2019.1648530

Alexander, L., Zhang, X., Peterson, T., Caesar, J., Gleason, B., Tank, A. K.,Haylock, M., Collins,D., Trewin, B. and Rahimzadeh, F., 2006. Global observed changes in daily climate extremes of temperature and precipitation. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111, 1-22 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006290

As-syakur, A. R., Tanaka, T., Osawa, T. andMahendra, M. S., 2013. Indonesian rainfall variability observation using TRMM multi-satellite data. Int J Remote Sens. 34, 7723-7738 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01431161.2013.826837

Chen, X., Chen, Z., Liu, H.,Huang, N.,Mao, Y., Cao, K., Shi, Q., Lu,Y. and Hu, H.-Y., 2022. Synergistic effects of UV and chlorine in bacterial inactivation for sustainable water reclamation and reuse. Sci. Total Environ. 845, 157320 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157320

Cosgrove,W. J. and Loucks, D. P., 2015. Water management: Current and future challenges and research directions. Water Resour. Res. 51, 4823-4839 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/2014WR016869

Hajani, E. and Rahman, A., 2014. Reliability and cost analysis of a rainwater harvesting system in peri-urban regions of Greater Sydney, Australia. Water. 6, 945-960 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/w6040945

Islam, M. A., Akber, M. A., Rahman, M. A., Islam, M. A. and Kabir, M. P., 2019. Evaluation of harvested rainwater quality at primary schools of southwest coastal Bangladesh. Environ. Monit. Assess. 191, 80 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-7217-6

Khoon, S., Issabayeva, G. and Lee, L., 2011. Measurement of rainwater chemical composition in Malaysia based on ion chromatography method. World acad. sci. eng. technol. 11, 161- 168

Kuppel, S., Houspanossian, J., Nosetto, M. D. and Jobbágy, E. G., 2015. What does it take to flood the Pampas?: Lessons from a decade of strong hydrological toMitigate SoilDegradation. fluctuations. Water Resour. Res. 51, 2937-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/2015WR016966

Lal, R., 2015. Restoring Soil Quality Sustainability. 7,5875-5895 Lee, K. E.,Mokhtar, M.,Mohd Hanafiah, M., Abdul Halim, A. and Badusah, J., 2016. Rainwater harvesting as an alternative water resource in Malaysia: potential, policies and development. J. Clean. Prod. 126, 218-222 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.03.060

Matomela, N., Li, T. and Ikhumhen, H.O., 2020. Siting of Rainwater Harvesting Potential Sites in Arid or Semi-arid Watersheds Using GIS-based Techniques. Environ. Process. 7, 631-652 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40710-020-00434-7

Palla, A.,Gnecco, I., Lanza, L. and La Barbera, P., 2012. Performance analysis of domestic rainwater harvesting systems under various European climate zones. Resour Conserv Recycl. 62, 71-80 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2012.02.006

Rahman, A., Keane, J. and Imteaz, M. A., 2012. Rainwater harvesting in Greater Sydney: Water savings, reliability and economic benefits. Resour Conserv Recycl. 61, 16-21 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2011.12.002

Rajasekhar, M., Gadhiraju, S. R., Kadam, A. and Bhagat, V., 2020. Identification of groundwater recharge-based potential rainwater harvesting sites for sustainable development of a semiarid region of southern India using geospatial, AHP, and SCSCN approach. Arab. J. Geosci. 13, 24 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-019-4996-6

Sánchez, A. S., Cohim, E. and Kalid, R. A., 2015. A review on physi cochemical and microbiological contamination of roofharvested rainwater in urban areas. Sustain. Water Qual. Ecol. 6, 119-137 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.swaqe.2015.04.002

Suhaila, J. and Yusop, Z., 2017. Spatial and temporal variabilities of rainfall data using functional data analysis. Theor. Appl. Climatol. 129, 229-242 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-016-1778-x

Sultana, N., Akib, S., Aqeel Ashraf, M. and Roseli Zainal Abidin, M., 2016. Quality assessment of harvested rainwater from green roofs under tropical climate. Desalin. Water Treat. 57, 75-82 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2015.1015307

Zhang, L.,Wang, J., Bai, Z. and Lv, C., 2015. Effects of vegetation on runoff and soil erosion on reclaimed land in an opencast coal-mine dump in a loess area. CATENA. 128, 44-53 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2015.01.016

Zhang, M., Chen, S., Jiang, H., Lin, Y., Zhang, J., Song, X. and Zhou, G., 2019. Water-Use Characteristics and Physiological Response of Moso Bamboo to Flash Droughts. Int J. Environ Res Public Health. 16, 2174 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122174

Zhang, Y.,Wang, H., Li, Y.,Wang, B., Huang, J., Deng, S., Yu, G. and Wang, Y., 2020. Removal of micropollutants by an electrochemically driven UV/chlorine process for decentralized water treatment. Water Res. 183, 116115 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116115

Zheng, H., Gao, J., Xie, G., Jin, Y. and Zhang, B., 2018. Identifying important ecological areas for potential rainwater harvesting in the semi-arid area of Chifeng, China. PLOS ONE. 13, e0201132 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201132

Anisa Ratnasari, Department of Environmental Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya, Indonesia

Arya Bhaskara Adiprabowo, Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S37HG, United Kingdom

Andhika Gilang Al Afgani, Institute for Sustainable Resources, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom

Atik Widiyanti, Department of Environmental Engineering, Universitas Nahdlatul Ulama Sidoarjo, Sidoarjo, Indonesia

Lily Oktavia, Department of Environmental Engineering, Universitas Nahdlatul Ulama Sidoarjo, Sidoarjo, Indonesia