Agus Riwanda https://orcid.org/0009-0009-9444-5222


This The main aim of this study is to analyze and clarify the implementation of the integration of science and religion, as suggested by Islamic scholars from Southeast Asia, in educational settings, particularly in State Islamic Universities and high schools in Indonesia. This research uses library research methodology to investigate the Comparative Typology of Integration of Science and Religion proposed by Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas and Amin Abdullah and its consequences for Islamic education. Al-Attas emphasized the importance of balancing spiritual and practical knowledge, recognizing both personal religious experience and objective religious elements. It supports the advancement of scientific knowledge through observation and experimentation and encourages the development of creative thinking and imagination in acquiring knowledge. On the other hand, Amin Abdullah advocates a relationship between science and religion that allows some information to flow, emphasizing the importance of mutual understanding and the integration of imaginative thinking into Islamic education to make it more relevant to today's times. To improve Islamic education, it is essential to achieve a balance between spiritual and practical knowledge, promote understanding of the simultaneous existence of subjective and objective aspects in religion, encourage scientific enlightenment and critical thinking, stimulate creativity and innovation in learning, facilitate viable connections between sciences and religion, recognizing the duality of objective and subjective components in religious studies, and integrating creative thinking to make religious education relevant and interesting in contemporary cultural contexts. These approaches can improve the quality of Islamic education and equip students to face the complexities of faith, science, and culture in the modern world.


Download data is not yet available.


How to Cite
Riwanda, A. (2023). Comparative Typology of Science and Religion Integration of Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas and Amin Abdullah and its Implications for Islamic Education. Journal of Islamic Civilization, 5(1), 91–111. Retrieved from https://journal2.unusa.ac.id/index.php/JIC/article/view/5195
Al-Attas, Amin Abdullah, Integration Interconnection, Religion and Science Integration, Tauhid Paradigm


Abbas, M. B. (2021). Whose Islam?: The Western university and modern Islamic thought in Indonesia. Stanford University Press.

Abdullah, M. A. (2014). Religion, Science, and Culture: An Integrated, Interconnected Paradigm of Science. Al-Jami’ah: Journal of Islamic Studies, 52(1), 175–203.

Abdullah, M. A. (2021). Multidisiplin, Interdisiplin dan Transdisiplin Ilmu Pengetahuan dan Riset pada Perguruan Tinggi Masa Pandemi. Prosiding Konferensi Integrasi Interkoneksi Islam Dan Sains, 3, ix–ix.

Adawiyah, R. (2017). Konsep Pendidikan Akhlak Ibnu Miskawaih.

Akkach, S. (2019). Polarising’Ilm: Science and Religion in Early Modern Islam. University of Adelaide Press.

Al Migdadi, M. H. (2012). Issues in Islamization of knowledge, man and education. Revue Académique Des Études Sociales et Humaines, 7, 3.

Al-Attas, S. M. N. (1993). Islam and Secularism. International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization.

Anwar, K., Rusmana, D., Trinova, Z., Manesa, M., Setiyowati, E., Saputra, N., & Andiyan, A. (2023). The Development of a Prototype Curriculum for Indonesian Education in 2022. Journal of Namibian Studies: History Politics Culture, 34, 1445–1469.

Asrori, A. (2016). Contemporary religious education model on the challenge of Indonesian multiculturalism. Journal of Indonesian Islam, 10(2), 261–284.

Azam, M. A. W. M. (2011). The Concept of Acquired Knowledge (‘ilm al-husuli); Its Reformation in The Discourse of Muslim Scholars. Revelation and Science, 1(03).

Bolandhematan, K. (2019). Spiritual Education in Islamic Tradition: Revisiting Ghazali’s “Deliverance.” Religious Education, 114(2), 110–129.

Clark, K. J. (2010). Reformed epistemology and the cognitive science of religion. Science and Religion in Dialogue, 500–513.

Coyne, J. A. (2016). Faith versus fact: Why science and religion are incompatible. Penguin.

Dahlia, E. (2018). Konsep Pendidikan Akhlak Perspektif Imam Al-Ghazali.

Daud, W. M. N. W. (1998). The educational philosophy and practice of Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas: An exposition of the original concept of Islamization. International Inst. of Islamic Thought and Civilization.

Dixon, T., & Shapiro, A. (2022). Science and religion: A very short introduction. Oxford University Press.

Dougherty, T., & Tweedt, C. (2015). Religious epistemology. Philosophy Compass, 10(8), 547–559.

Eller, J. D. (2014). Introducing anthropology of religion: Culture to the ultimate. Routledge.

Esbjörn‐Hargens, S., & Wilber, K. (2008). Toward a comprehensive integration of science and religion: A post‐metaphysical approach.

Euben, R. L. (2002). Contingent borders, syncretic perspectives: Globalization, political theory, and Islamizing knowledge. International Studies Review, 23–48.

Evans, J. H. (2011). Epistemological and moral conflict between religion and science. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 50(4), 707–727.

Fischer, J., Dyball, R., Fazey, I., Gross, C., Dovers, S., Ehrlich, P. R., Brulle, R. J., Christensen, C., & Borden, R. J. (2012). Human behavior and sustainability. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 10(3), 153–160.

Forsthoefel, T. A. (2020). Knowing Beyond Knowledge: Epistemologies of religious experience in classical and modern Advaita. Routledge.

Fouz Mohamed Zacky, M., & Moniruzzaman, M. (2023). ‘Islamic Epistemology’in a Modern Context: Anatomy of an Evolving Debate. Social Epistemology, 1–15.

Fuller, S. (2007). Science vs. Religion. Polity.

Gilani, S. M. Y., & Islam, T. (2018). Approaches to Integration of Knowledge: A Study of Al-Ghazali And Alwani’s Views (Pendekatan ke Arah Mengintegrasikan Ilmu Pengetahuan: Satu Kajian terhadap Pandangan Al-Ghazali dan Alwani). Journal of Islam in Asia (E-ISSN 2289-8077), 15(2), 389–410.

Gould, S. J. (2011). Rocks of ages: Science and religion in the fullness of life. Ballantine Books.

Guessoum, N. (2010). Science, religion, and the quest for knowledge and truth: An Islamic perspective. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 5, 55–69.

Halstead, M. (2004). An Islamic concept of education. Comparative Education, 40(4), 517–529.

Hamid, F. Z. (2018). Knowledge and knowing in Islam: A comparative study between Nursi and al-Attas. GJAT, 8(1), 31–41.

Hashim, R., & Rossidy, I. (2000). Islamization of knowledge: A comparative analysis of the conceptions of AI-Attas and AI-Fārūqī. Intellectual Discourse, 8(1).

Hassan, M. K. (2013). Islamization of Human Knowledge. Islamic Economics Education in Southeast Asian Universities, 13–50.

Hidayat, F. (2015). Pengembangan paradigma integrasi ilmu: Harmonisasi Islam dan sains dalam pendidikan. Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, 4(2), 299–318.

Hidayaturrahman, M., Sudarman, S., Husamah, H., & Kusumawati, I. R. (2021). Integrating Science and Religion at Malaysian and Indonesian Higher Education. Al-Ta Lim Journal, 28(1), 55–66.

Hitzhusen, G. E., & Tucker, M. E. (2013). The potential of religion for Earth Stewardship. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 11(7), 368–376.

Iqbal, M. (2000). Islam and modern science: Formulating the questions. Islamic Studies, 39(4), 517–570.

Iqbal, M., & Adisel, A. (2021). Epistemology of Islamic Science: A searching for Ideal Form and Format of Scientific Design for Islamic Higher Education in Indonesia. Madania: Jurnal Kajian Keislaman, 25(1), 101–112.

Johnstone, R. L. (2015). Religion in society: A sociology of religion. Routledge.

Kasim, T. S. A. T., & Yusoff, Y. M. (2014). Active teaching methods: Personal experience of integrating spiritual and moral values. Religious Education, 109(5), 554–570.

Lyons, J. (2010). The house of wisdom: How the Arabs transformed Western civilization. Bloomsbury Publishing USA.

Mahmudin, M., Ahmad, Z., & Basit, A. (2021). Islamic Epistemology Paradigm: Worldview of Interdisciplinary Islamic Studies Syed Muhammad Naqueb Al-Attas. International Journal of Social Science and Religion (IJSSR), 23–42.

Makbuloh, D. (2020). A Model of the Integration of Science in State Islamic Universities in Indonesia. 154–157.

McPhetres, J., & Zuckerman, M. (2017). Religious people endorse different standards of evidence when evaluating religious versus scientific claims. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 8(7), 836–842.

Nasir, M., Mulyono, Y., & Nastiti, L. R. (2020). Reconstructing Distinction Pattern of Science Education Curriculum in Indonesian Islamic Universities: An Integrated Paradigm for Science and Religion. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 17(1), 11–21.

Nasr, S. H. (2003). Islam: Religion, history, and civilization.

Nurdin, H. (2020). Problems and Crisis of Islamic Education Today and in The Future. International Journal of Asian Education, 1(1), 21–28.

Nurdin, I. F. (2017). Developing The Model Of Inclusive Religious Education At Indonesia And Thailand Elementary Schools. IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSR-JRME), 7(5), 63–67.

Popper, K. (2005). The logic of scientific discovery. Routledge.

Popper, K. (2013). Realism and the aim of science: From the postscript to the logic of scientific discovery. Routledge.

Prastowo, A. I., Suharto, T., & Widodo, S. A. (2023). Harmonizinng Knowledge Integration: Insights from Amin Abdullah and Nidhal Guessom in Pesantren-Based Higher Education. AL-ISHLAH: Jurnal Pendidikan, 15(3).

Puspitasari, E., & Yuliana, A. T. R. D. (2022). Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas’ Concept of Islamizing Science and its Relevance to Islamic Education. Al-Misbah (Jurnal Islamic Studies), 10(2), 91–108.

Rediehs, L. (2022). The Quaker Experiential Integration of Science and Religion. Theology and Science, 20(2), 138–155.

Rolston, H. (2006). Science and religion: A critical survey (Issue 188). Templeton Foundation Press.

Rusydi, I. (2012). Paradigma Pendidikan Agama Integratif-Transformatif. Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, 1(1), 105–120.

Sahin, A. (2018). Critical issues in Islamic education studies: Rethinking Islamic and Western liberal secular values of education. Religions, 9(11), 335.

Sappe, S. (2020). Differences in knowledge science in Islamic education philosophy perspective. International Journal of Asian Education, 1(1), 1–8.

Sassi, K. (2020). Prinsip-prinsip Epistemologi Pendidikan Islam Paradigma Tauhid Naquib al-Attas. Millah: Jurnal Studi Agama, 135–172.

Shamsaei, M., & Shah, M. H. (2022). Recognizing the Position and Validity of Science in Understanding Religion: The Perspectives of Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas and Pervez Amirali Hoodbhoy. Dinamika Ilmu, 22(1), 73–89.

Siswanto, S. (2013). Perspektif Amin Abdullah Tentang Integrasi-Interkoneksi Dalam Kajian Islam. Teosofi: Jurnal Tasawuf Dan Pemikiran Islam, 3(2), 376–409.

Sollereder, B. N. (2019). Beyond barbour: New ways of teaching the relationship between science and religion. Science and Religion in Education, 15–18.

Suyadi, S., & Sutrisno, S. (2018). A genealogycal study of Islamic education science at the Faculty of Ilmu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan UIN Sunan Kalijaga. Al-Jami’ah: Journal of Islamic Studies, 56(1), 29–58.

Syahidin, E. (2016). Pemikiran Pendidikan Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas. Online Thesis, 9(2).

Treiger, A. (2011). Inspired knowledge in Islamic thought: Al-Ghazali’s theory of mystical cognition and its Avicennian foundation (Vol. 27). Routledge.

Wathoni, L. M. N. (2018). Integrasi Pendidikan Islam dan Sains: Rekonstruksi Paradigma Pendidikan Islam. Uwais Inspirasi Indonesia.

Whitehead, A. N. (2011). Religion in the Making. Cambridge University Press.

Wiebe, D. (2019a). A Manifesto for the Scientific Study of Religions or Setting the Parameters for a Scientific Study of Religions In the Modern University. Method & Theory in the Study of Religion, 33(1), 73–76.

Wiebe, D. (2019b). A Manifesto for the Scientific Study of Religions or Setting the Parameters for a Scientific Study of Religions In the Modern University. Method & Theory in the Study of Religion, 33(1), 73–76.

Wilber, K. (1999). The marriage of sense and soul: Integrating science and religion (Issue 120). Harmony.

Wilber, K. (2001). A theory of everything: An integral vision for business, politics, science and spirituality. Shambhala publications.

Wirman, H. E. P. (2019). Paradigma dan Gerakan Keilmuan Universitas Islam Negeri. Prenada Media.

Yasin, F., & Jani, M. S. (2013). Islamic education: The philosophy, aim, and main features. International Journal of Education and Research, 1(10), 1–18.

Zaidi, A. (2011). Muslim Reconstructions of Knowledge: The Cases of Nasr and al-Faruqi. In Islam, Modernity, and the Human Sciences (pp. 53–80). Springer.