Tzu-Jen Kao Dito Anurogo Budhy Munawar Rachman Taruna Ikrar


Unification theory seeks to gain a comprehensive understanding of something. The goal of unification theory is to bring together multiviews on love. If “Love” is not understood from multiple perspectives, it will be difficult to understand and easy to misinterpret. This paper expresses Nurcholish Madjid's "Love" thoughts based on his works. Given the scope of the issue, Love will be examined through the lens of neuroparemiofenomenology, or the collaboration of neuroscience, paremiology, and phenomenology. The term "Love" was searched using "Nurcholish Madjid's Complete Works," edited by Dr. Budhy Munawar-Rachman. The neuroparemiopheno menological perspective is hoped to reveal the fundamental meaning of "love" in a comprehensive and complete manner.

Teori unifikasi berusaha untuk memperoleh pemahaman yang komprehensif tentang sesuatu. Tujuan dari teori unifikasi adalah untuk menyatukan berbagai pandangan tentang cinta. Cinta akan sulit dipahami dan mudah disalahtafsirkan bila tidak dimengerti melalui multiperspektif. Tulisan ini mengungkapkan pemikiran "Cinta" ala Nurcholish Madjid berdasarkan karya-karyanya. Mengingat luasnya problematika, maka Cinta akan dibahas berdasarkan perspektif neuroparemiofenomenologi, yakni: kolaborasi antara neurosains, paremiologi, dan fenomenologi. Terminologi "Cinta" dicari berdasarkan "Karya Lengkap Nurcholish Madjid" dengan Dr. Budhy Munawar-Rachman selaku ketua penyunting. Diharapkan perspektif neuroparemiofenomenologi dapat mengungkapkan makna fundamental "cinta" secara komprehensif dan paripurna.


Download data is not yet available.


How to Cite
Kao, T.-J. ., Anurogo, D., Rachman, B. M. ., & Ikrar, T. . (2022). Nurcholish Madjid’s Multiperspective Neuroparaemiophenomenology of Love. Journal of Islamic Civilization, 4(1), 50–67. https://doi.org/10.33086/jic.v4i1.2966
Love, Neuroparemiophenomenology, Nurcholish Madjid


AL, O., EX, F., RIMENTAL, P., BASIC, M. E. I., & IEN, S. (2021). Oxytocin, Vasopressin and Sexual Activity. Journal of Experimental and Basic Medical Sciences, 2(2), 93-99.

Ames, R. T. (2022). Unloading the Essentialism Charge: Some Methodological Reflections in Doing Philosophy of Culture. Comparative Philosophy and Method: Contemporary Practices and Future Possibilities, 55. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5040/9781350155053.ch-003

Baribeau, D., & Anagnostou, E. (2015). Oxytocin and vasopressin: linking pituitary neuropeptides and their receptors to social neurocircuits [Review]. Frontiers in neuroscience, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2015.00335 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2015.00335

Beach, L. R., & Wise, J. A. (2022). The Theory of Narrative Thought. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Bertolaso, M., & Velázquez, H. (2022). The Epistemology of Life Understanding Living Beings According to a Relational Ontology. In From Electrons to Elephants and Elections (pp. 719-741). Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-92192-7_38

Briggs, A., & Reiss, M. J. (2021). Human Flourishing: Scientific insight and spiritual wisdom in uncertain times. Oxford University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198850267.001.0001

Camilleri, S., & Varlik, S. Philosophical Hermeneutics and Islamic Thought.

Caramello, O. (2022). Grothendieck Toposes as Unifying ‘Bridges’: A Mathematical Morphogenesis. In Objects, Structures, and Logics (pp. 233-255). Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-84706-7_9

Carter, C. S. (2021). Oxytocin and love: Myths, metaphors and mysteries. Comprehensive Psychoneuroendocrinology, 100107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpnec.2021.100107

Cave, S., & Dihal, K. (2021). AI Will Always Love You: Three Contradictions in Imaginings of Intimate Relations with Machines. In Minding the Future (pp. 107-125). Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-64269-3_6

Chakrabarty, N. (2021). Husserl’s Trancendental Phenomenology: Continuity to Existentialism.

Chesterton, L., & Jack, K. (2021). Using Heidegger’s philosophy of dasein to support person-centred research. Nurse Researcher, 29(3).

d'Arcy, M. C. (2021). The Meeting of Love and Knowledge: Perennial Wisdom (Vol. 4). Routledge.

Dannefer, D. (2021). Age and the reach of sociological imagination: Power, ideology and the life course. Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429323676

De Boer, A., van Buel, E. M., & Ter Horst, G. (2012). Love is more than just a kiss: a neurobiological perspective on love and affection. Neuroscience, 201, 114-124. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.11.017

Downes, S. (2022). Connectivism. Asian Journal of Distance Education.

Edmonds, W., & Kennedy, T. (2017). Convergent-parallel approach. An Applied Guide to Research Designs. In: SAGE Publications, Inc.

El-Bizri, N. (2022). Phenomenological Hermeneutics of? In Philosophical Hermeneutics and Islamic Thought (pp. 3-18). Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-92754-7_1

Eslinger, P. J., Anders, S., Ballarini, T., Boutros, S., Krach, S., Mayer, A. V., Moll, J., Newton, T. L., Schroeter, M. L., & de Oliveira-Souza, R. (2021). The neuroscience of social feelings: mechanisms of adaptive social functioning. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 128, 592-620. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2021.05.028

Feldman, R. (2017). The neurobiology of human attachments. Trends in cognitive sciences, 21(2), 80-99. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2016.11.007

Ferguson, D. S. (2022). Traces of Transcendence: The Heart of the Spiritual Quest. Wipf and Stock Publishers.

Fisher, H. E., Xu, X., Aron, A., & Brown, L. L. (2016). Intense, Passionate, Romantic Love: A Natural Addiction? How the Fields That Investigate Romance and Substance Abuse Can Inform Each Other. Frontiers in psychology, 7, 687-687. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00687 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00687

Francesco, F., & Cervone, A. (2014). Neurobiology of love. Psychiatr Danub, 26(Suppl 1), 266-268.

Galanti Grollo, S. (2022). Rethinking Husserl’s lifeworld: The many faces of the world in Heidegger’s early Freiburg lecture courses. Continental Philosophy Review, 1-16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11007-022-09565-0

García, C. Y. (1998). Temporal course of the basic components of love throughout relationships. Psychology in Spain, 2(1), 76-86.

Ghasemi, F. (2021). A phenomenological analysis of teachers’ perceptions of ethical factors affecting the teacher–student relationships. Ethics & Behavior, 1-13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10508422.2021.1944153

Gondos, A. (2021). Seekers of Love: The Phenomenology of Emotion in Jewish, Christian, and Sufi Mystical Sources. In Esoteric Transfers and Constructions (pp. 21-41). Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-61788-2_2

Gouveia, S. S. (2022). Non-Reductive Neurophilosophy. In Philosophy and Neuroscience (pp. 181-231). Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-95369-0_5

Grahn, P., Ottosson, J., & Uvnäs-Moberg, K. (2021). The Oxytocinergic System as a Mediator of Anti-stress and Instorative Effects Induced by Nature: The Calm and Connection Theory. Frontiers in psychology, 12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.617814

Griffiths, J. O. (2021). Bioethics, the Ontology of Life, and the Hermeneutics of Biology. In Phenomenology of Bioethics: Technoethics and Lived-Experience (pp. 1-21). Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-65613-3_1

Gustison, M. L., & Phelps, S. M. (2022). Individual differences in social attachment: A multi‐disciplinary perspective. Genes, Brain and Behavior, 21(3), e12792. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/gbb.12792

Hadreas, P. (2016). A phenomenology of love and hate. Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315565064

Hanna, R., & Kazim, E. (2021). Philosophical foundations for digital ethics and AI ethics: a dignitarian approach. AI and Ethics, 1(4), 405-423. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s43681-021-00040-9

Harvey, A. R. (2020). Links Between the Neurobiology of Oxytocin and Human Musicality [Review]. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2020.00350 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2020.00350

Havlík, V. (2022). Towards a Universal Principle of Emergence (UPE). In Hierarchical Emergent Ontology and the Universal Principle of Emergence (pp. 49-102). Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-98148-8_2

Hrisztova-Gotthardt, H., & Varga, M. A. (2014). Introduction to paremiology: A comprehensive guide to proverb studies. De Gruyter Open. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/9783110410167

Hunt, C. (2021). Speaking Metaphorically. In Critical Reflection, Spirituality and Professional Practice (pp. 93-120). Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-66591-3_4

Hutchings, K. (2022). Empire and Insurgency: The Politics of Truth in Alexander Wendt's Quantum Mind and Social Science: Unifying Physical and Social Ontology. International Theory, 14(1), 183-192. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1752971921000087

Jain, S. (2021). Understanding semantics-based decision support. CRC Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1201/9781003008927

Jewett, J. R. (1893). Arabic proverbs and proverbial phrases. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 15, 28-120. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/592351

Jollimore, T. (2022). Love and the Past (and Present, and Future). Philosophy of Love in the Past, Present, and Future, 89-106. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003014331-9

Kitcher, P. (1981). Explanatory unification. Philosophy of science, 48(4), 507-531. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/289019

Kitcher, P. (1989). Explanatory unification and the causal structure of the world.

Kvanvig, J. L. (2022). Theoretical Unity and the Priority of Propositional Justification. In Propositional and Doxastic Justification (pp. 27-39). Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003008101-4

Laverty, S. M. (2003). Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology: A comparison of historical and methodological considerations. International journal of qualitative methods, 2(3), 21-35. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/160940690300200303

Lee, H.-J., Macbeth, A. H., Pagani, J. H., & Young, W. S., 3rd. (2009). Oxytocin: the great facilitator of life. Progress in neurobiology, 88(2), 127-151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2009.04.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2009.04.001

Liao, C.-p. (2021). Reception and Transformation of Heidegger’s Philosophy in East Asia. Journal of Japanese Philosophy, 7, 23-38. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1353/jjp.2021.0000

Louchakova-Schwartz, O. (2021). The “Wonder to Behold”: Reflections on Phenomenological Research of Alienic Spirituality. In Indigenous Psychology of Spirituality (pp. 127-155). Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-50869-2_6

Lu, Y. (2021a). Confucianism and Phenomenology: An Exploration of Feeling, Value and Virtue. Brill. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004319097

Lu, Y. (2021b). The Phenomenology of Sympathy and Love. In Confucianism and Phenomenology (pp. 45-69). Brill. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004319097_005

Machia, L. V., & Ogolsky, B. G. (2021). The reasons people think about staying and leaving their romantic relationships: A mixed-method analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 47(8), 1279-1293. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167220966903

Mäcklin, H. (2021). Aesthetic Self-Forgetfulness. British Journal of Aesthetics, 61(4), 527-541. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/aesthj/ayab019

Mäki, U. (2001). Explanatory unification: Double and doubtful. Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 31(4), 488-506. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/004839310103100402

Marazziti, D., Palermo, S., & Mucci, F. (2021). The Science of Love: State of the Art. Recent Advances in NGF and Related Molecules, 249-254. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-74046-7_16

Marmor, A. (2022). Rationalizing Practices. Foundations of Institutional Reality, forthcoming by Oxford University Press, Cornell Legal Studies Research Paper(22-10). DOI: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4059316

Michel, J. (2022). Meaning and Experience. For a Pragmatic Hermeneutics. European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy, 14(XIV-1). DOI: https://doi.org/10.4000/ejpap.2745

Mitra, A. K. (2021). Oxytocin and vasopressin: the social networking buttons of the body. AIMS Molecular Science, 8(1), 32-50. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3934/molsci.2021003

Munawar, B. Karya Lengkap Nurcholish Madjid, Keislaman, Keindonesiaan dan Kemodernan. In: Nurcholish Madjid Society (NCMS.

Murphy, M. (2022). 1 Social theory and education research. Social Theory and Education Research: Understanding Foucault, Habermas, Bourdieu and Derrida. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003156550

Oliva, M. (2021). Immortality in Heidegger. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly, 95(3), 571-594. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5840/acpq202168231

Oliveira, V. E. d. M., Lukas, M., Wolf, H. N., Durante, E., Lorenz, A., Mayer, A.-L., Bludau, A., Bosch, O. J., Grinevich, V., & Egger, V. (2021). Oxytocin and vasopressin within the ventral and dorsal lateral septum modulate aggression in female rats. Nature communications, 12(1), 1-15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23064-5

Phipps, G. (2017). The dialectic of love and the motif of fruit in Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit. Textual Practice, 31(1), 99-115. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0950236X.2016.1188142

Pirson, M. (2022). Love and Organization: Lessons of Love for Human Dignity, Leadership and Motivation. Taylor & Francis. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003254034

Plummer, K. (2021). Critical Humanism: A Manifesto for the 21st Century. John Wiley & Sons.

Rahman, M. M., Rahaman, M. S., Islam, M. R., Rahman, F., Mithi, F. M., Alqahtani, T., Almikhlafi, M. A., Alghamdi, S. Q., Alruwaili, A. S., & Hossain, M. S. (2021). Role of phenolic compounds in human disease: current knowledge and future prospects. Molecules, 27(1), 233. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27010233

Ramm, B. J. (2021). The technology of awakening: Experiments in Zen phenomenology. Religions, 12(3), 192. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/rel12030192

Royters, N. M. (2022). Ghosts Amid the Gears: Neoliberal Subjectivity in 21st Century Chinese and American Fiction

Rupp, J. (2021). Return to the Root: Reflections on the Inner Life. Ave Maria Press.

Ryan, R. M., Ingram, S. L., & Scimemi, A. (2021). Regulation of Glutamate, GABA and Dopamine Transporter Uptake, Surface Mobility and Expression [Review]. Frontiers in cellular neuroscience, 15. https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2021.670346 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2021.670346

Saada, N., & Magadlah, H. (2021). The meanings and possible implications of critical Islamic religious education. British Journal of Religious Education, 43(2), 206-217. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01416200.2020.1785844

Salvatore, A. (2021). The Sociology of Islam: Beyond Orientalism, Toward Transculturality? In Exploring Islam beyond Orientalism and Occidentalism (pp. 43-63). Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-33239-6_3

Sass, L. (2021). Husserl, Heidegger, and the paradox of subjectivity. Continental Philosophy Review, 54(3), 295-317. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11007-021-09540-1

Schafer, K. (2022). Kant on Reason as the Capacity for Comprehension. Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 1-19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00048402.2022.2047746

Sinclair, S., Beamer, K., Hack, T. F., McClement, S., Raffin Bouchal, S., Chochinov, H. M., & Hagen, N. A. (2017). Sympathy, empathy, and compassion: A grounded theory study of palliative care patients’ understandings, experiences, and preferences. Palliative medicine, 31(5), 437-447. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216316663499

Singer, A. (1913). Arabic proverbs. F. Diemer.

Smith, J. W. (2016). Loving the Many in the One: Augustine and the Love of Finite Goods. Religions, 7(11), 137. https://www.mdpi.com/2077-1444/7/11/137 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/rel7110137

Song, H., Zou, Z., Kou, J., Liu, Y., Yang, L., Zilverstand, A., d’Oleire Uquillas, F., & Zhang, X. (2015). Love-related changes in the brain: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2015.00071

Søvik, A. O. (2022). A Basic Theory of Everything: A Fundamental Theoretical Framework for Science and Philosophy. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110770957

Sutch, Z., & Malone, P. (2021). Leading with Love and Laughter: Letting Go and Getting Real at Work. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Tahko, T. E. (2021). Unity of science. Cambridge University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108581417

Tahko, T. E. (2022). Natural kinds, mind-independence, and unification principles. Synthese, 200(2), 1-23. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11229-022-03661-7

Valdovinos, J. I. (2022). Heidegger and Transparency: Between Truth and Attention. In Transparency and Critical Theory (pp. 303-345). Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-95546-5_7

Wajzer, M. (2022). On Leszek Nowak’s Conception of the Unity of Science. Foundations of Science, 1-18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10699-022-09843-3

Wertz, F. J. Phenomenological methodology, methods, and procedures for research in psychology. H. Cooper (Ed.-in-Chief), M. Coutanche, LM McMullen, AT Panter, D. Rindskopf, & K. Sher (Eds.), APA handbook of research methods in psychology, 2, 92.

Williams, H., & Byrne, T. (2022). Husserl’s Theory of Scientific Explanation: A Bolzanian Inspired Unificationist Account. Husserl Studies, 1-26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10743-022-09302-8

Wilson, K. A. (2022). Windows on Time: Unlocking the Temporal Microstructure of Experience. Review of Philosophy and Psychology, 1-22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13164-022-00632-2

Wolfson, E. R. (2021). Timemask and the Telling of Time in the Time of Telling. In Suffering Time: Philosophical, Kabbalistic, and Ḥasidic Reflections on Temporality (pp. 1-71). Brill. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004449343_002

Wu, Y., Veerareddy, A., Lee, M. R., Bellucci, G., Camilleri, J. A., Eickhoff, S. B., & Krueger, F. (2021). Understanding identification-based trust in the light of affiliative bonding: Meta-analytic neuroimaging evidence. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 131, 627-641. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2021.09.053

Yılmaz, A. (2021). Meaning, Responsibility and Politics: Hermeneutical Essays. Sentez Yayıncılık.

Yüksel, P., & Yıldırım, S. (2015). Theoretical frameworks, methods, and procedures for conducting phenomenological studies in educational settings. Turkish online journal of qualitative inquiry, 6(1), 1-20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17569/tojqi.59813

Zahavi, D. (2017). Husserl's legacy: Phenomenology, metaphysics, and transcendental philosophy. Oxford University Press.

Zeki, S. (2007). The neurobiology of love. FEBS letters, 581(14), 2575-2579. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2007.03.094