Main Article Content

Pingkan Dyaningratri Azzahra Brihastami Sawitri


Background: Vitamin D levels have been linked to psychological symptoms such as anxiety, depression, and impaired cognitive performance. It is found that lower vitamin D levels in early pregnancy are associated with depressive symptoms in perinatal.This study examines the association between vitamin D levels and perinatal depression. This article based on literature source from Pubmed/MEDLINE and Science Direct with keywords: vitamin D levels including 25(OH)D levels or vitamin D deficiency, prenatal, antenatal, and postpartum depression. The discussion of this study will assist readers and health professionals analyze how vitamin D levels in the body affect the incidence of antepartum depression.

Results: these are five filtered literature, the journal discusses the relationship between vitamin D levels and antepartum depression. This literature review shows that pregnant women with less than 20 ng/mL vitamin D levels are 3.3 times more at risk than pregnant women with more than 20 ng/mL. Vitamin D plays a role in the process of increasing serotonin synthesis and increasing anti-inflammatory so that it can suppress the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines that play a role in the incidence of depression.

Conclusion: There is a correlation between vitamin D levels and the occurrence of depression during the perinatal period. It can be suggested that pregnant women check their vitamin D levels regularly.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Dyaningratri Azzahra, P., & Sawitri, B. (2023). Literature review: Vitamin D Levels and Perinatal Depression Association. International Islamic Medical Journal, 4(2), 59–71.
Vitamin D Level, Perinatal, Depression, antepartum, postpartum


Diamond, A., 2013. Executive Functions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64(1), pp.135- 168. DOI:

Dregan, A., Matcham, F., Harber-Aschan, L., Rayner, L., Brailean, A., Davis, K., Hatch, S., Pariante, C., Armstrong, D., Stewart, R. and Hotopf, M., 2019. Common mental disorders within chronic inflammatory disorders: a primary care database prospective investigation. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 78(5), pp.688-695. DOI:

Holick, M., 2009. Vitamin D Status: Measurement, Interpretation, and Clinical Application. Annals of Epidemiology, 19(2), pp.73-78. DOI:

Katzung, B., Masters, S. and Trevor, A., 2012. Katzung & Trevor's Pharmacology: Examination & Board Review, 12e. 12th ed. Jakarta: EGC, pp.314-316.

Ogiji, J. and Rich, W. (2022) ‘An exploratory study of vitamin D levels during pregnancy and its association with postpartum depression’, Psychiatry Research Communications, 2(1), p. 100021. doi: 10.1016/j.psycom.2022.100021. DOI:

Patrick, R. and Ames, B., 2015. Vitamin D and the omega‐3 fatty acids control serotonin synthesis and action, part 2: relevance for ADHD, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior. The FASEB Journal, 29(6), pp.2207-2222. DOI:

Pratiwi S. E., and Sukmawati, F., 2020. Vitamin D and Serotonin’s Role in Neuropsychiatric Disorders. Raheema: Jurnal Studi Gender dan Anak, [online] 7(1), pp.114-128. Available at: <> [Accessed 14 June 2021].

Raison, C. L., & Miller, A. H. (2011). Is depression an inflammatory disorder? Current Psychiatry Reports, 13(6), 467–475. DOI:

Sabir, M., Haussler, M., Mallick, S., Kaneko, I., Lucas, D., Haussler, C., Whitfield, G. and Jurutka, P., 2018. Optimal vitamin D spurs serotonin: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D represses serotonin reuptake transport (SERT) and degradation (MAO-A) gene expression in cultured rat serotonergic neuronal cell lines. Genes & Nutrition, 13(1). DOI:

Wacker, M. and Holick, M., 2013. Sunlight and Vitamin D. Dermato-Endocrinology, 5(1), pp.51-108. DOI:

Wang, Y. et al. (2023) ‘Perinatal depression and serum vitamin D status: A cross-sectional study in urban China’, Journal of Affective Disorders, 322, pp. 214–220. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2022.11.030. DOI:

Williams, J., Romero, V., Clinton, C., Vazquez, D., Marcus, S., Chilimigras, J., Hamilton, S., Allbaugh, L., Vahratian, A., Schrader, R. and Mozurkewich, E., 2016. Vitamin D levels and perinatal depressive symptoms in women at risk: a secondary analysis of the mothers, omega-3, and mental health study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 16(1). DOI:

World Health Organization (WHO). 2021. Depression. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 21 July 2021].

Pingkan Dyaningratri Azzahra, Universitas Airlangga

Brihastami Sawitri, Universitas Airlangga