Drowning Death: A Literature Review
Keywords:drowning, postmortem examination, forensic medicine
Background: The process of drowning begins with respiratory distress either because a person's airway is below the surface of the liquid (submersion) or the water only covers the face (immersion) (Putra, 2020). In a body submerged in water and suspected of having died from drowning, it is necessary to determine whether the victim was still alive at the time of the drowning. The probability was marked by intravital signs, whether there were other signs of violence or the cause of death. All these things can be determined through an external and internal body examination of the corpse and are supported by supporting examinations. With this series of examinations, the diagnosis of drowning can be established, and the cause and mechanism of death of the bodies found can be estimated. Doctors in forensic medicine have an important role in cases of drowning deaths, such as in helping to identify victims and determine the cause of death. (Armstrong & Erskine, 2018).
Objective: This report aims to learn more about drowning deaths, the classification, the pathophysiology of drowning deaths, and the process of investigating drowning deaths.
Conclusion: Drowning is asphyxia that prevents air entry into the lungs by inhaling fluid into the airways, i.e., nose and mouth. Cases of drowning death are caused by irreversible brain damage in the development of irreversible cerebral anoxia and hypoxia. There are two classifications of drowning, namely Dry Drowning and Wet Drowning. Doctors in the field of forensic medicine have an important role in cases of drowning deaths, such as in helping efforts to identify victims and determine the cause of death. The investigation process includes Pre-Autopsy Preparation and Interest in Victim History, External Findings, Internal Meetings, and Special Tests.
Armstrong, E. J., Erskine, K. L. 2018. Investigation of Drowning Deaths: A Practical Review. Academic Forensic Pathology 8(1): 8-43. DOI: https://doi.org/10.23907/2018.002
Bardale, R. 2016. Principle of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology 1st Edition. Jaypee. New Delhi.
Budiyanto, A., Widiatmaka, W., Winardi, T., Mun’in, A., Sidhi. 2012. Ilmu Kedokteran Forensik Edisi 1. Bagian Kedokteran Forensik Fakultas Kedokteran Universtas Indonesia. Jakarta.
Chaudhary, R., Dhingra, V. 2021. Forensic Significance in The Cases of Drowning Deaths: An Elaborate Study. IP International Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicological Science 6(4): 122-126. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijfmts.2021.026
Hussein, N. H. and Abdulla, M. A. J. (2019) ‘Autopsy Findings And Electrolytes Changes in Cases of Drowning’, Internation Journal of Current Research, 11(11), pp. 8407- 8413.
Putra, A. A. G. A. (2014). Kematian Akibat Tenggelam: Laporan Kasus. E-Jurnal Medika Udayana, 3(5), 542–551. Retrieved from https://ojs.unud.ac.id/index.php/eum/article/view/8857
Szpilman, D., Bierens, JJLM., Handley, A. J., Orlowski, J. P. 2016. Review Article: Drowning. New England Journal of Medicine.
Vij, K. 2018. Textbook of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology 5th Edition. Elsevier. New Delhi.
World Health Organization (2021) Drowning. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/drowning
Wulur, R. A. (2013) ‘Gambaran Temuan Autopsi Kasus Tenggelam Di BLU RSU Prof. Dr. R. D. Kandou Manado Periode Januari 2007 - Desember 2011’, e-CliniC, 1(1). doi: 10.35790/ecl.1.1.2013.3296. DOI: https://doi.org/10.35790/ecl.1.1.2013.3296
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Khaerunnisah
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.