Corrective Feedback: How has it been implemented in EFL Writing Class?


  • Fika Megawati Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Psikologi dan Ilmu Pendidikan, Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo
  • A. Effendi Kadarisman School of Graduate Studies, Universitas Islam Malang
  • Sheila Agustina Fakultas Bisnis, Hukum, dan Ilmu Sosial, Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo



grammar; strategy; corrective feedback; challenge


Studies have shown that during the process of Interlanguage development, language learners cannot avoid making grammatical errors in either spoken or written form. Although it is considered as a normal phase, errors can lower students' confidence to be active EFL learners in the class. Accordingly, they need teachers’ appropriate corrective feedback (CF) to produce effective communication in the target language. Thus, considering the significant contribution of grammar knowledge and teachers' feedback on students' English proficiency, this paper aims to explore the perception of 12 EFL teachers’ practices and 91 students, both of whom are involved in an English writing class, about CF. The instruments used to collect the data was closed- and open-ended questionnaire. The results indicate that teachers vary their CF in terms of frequency and types. In addition, students show a different perspective on the effectiveness of CF in writing class. Also, teachers need to become more familiar with electronic CF in order to implement it better in class including for writing instruction process and promoting peer corrective feedback. In line with these findings, suggestions for future research are provided.


Download data is not yet available.


Alharbi, M. A. (2020). Exploring the potential of Google Doc in facilitating innovative teaching and learning practices in an EFL writing course. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 14(3), 227–242. DOI:

Alshuraidah, A., & Storch, N. (2019). Investigating a collaborative approach to peer feedback. Academic.Oup.Com, 73(2), 166–174. Retrieved from DOI:

Amrhein, H. R., & Nassaji, H. (2010). Written corrective feedback: What do students and teachers prefer and why? Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics/Revue Canadienne de Linguistique Appliquee, 13(2), 95–127.

Ariyanti, A., & Nur, D. R. (2017). Correcting Feedback on Essay Composition: EFL Students’ Preferences between Traditional and e-Feedback. Journal of English Language Teaching and Linguistics, 2(3), 191. DOI:

Atma, N., & Widiati, N. (2016). Efl students’ preferences for corrective feedback in speaking instruction across speaking course levels. Bahasa Dan Seni: Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra, Seni, Dan Pengajarannya, 43(2), 183–195. Retrieved from

Bitchener, J., & Knoch, U. (2008). The value of written corrective feedback for migrant and international students. Language Teaching Research, 12(3), 409–431. DOI:

Bush, J. C. (2020). Using screencasting to give feedback for academic writing. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1–14. DOI:

Castro, M. C. S. A. (2017). Errors and corrective feedback in writing: implications to our classroom practices. Language and Language Teaching Journal, 20(02), 158–166. DOI:

Chong, S. W. (2018). Interpersonal aspect of written feedback: a community college students’ perspective. Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 23(4), 499–519. DOI:

Deeley, S. J. (2018). Using technology to facilitate effective assessment for learning and feedback in higher education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 43(3), 439–448. DOI:

Di Loreto, S., & McDonough, K. (2014). The Relationship Between Instructor Feedback and ESL Student Anxiety. TESL Canada Journal, 31(1), 20. DOI:

Diab, R. L. (2005). EFL University Students’ Preferences for Error Correction and Teacher Feedback on Writing. Retrieved from

Elfiyanto, S., & Fukazawa, S. (2020). Effect of teacher and peer written corrective feedback on writing components in EFL classrooms. JEES (Journal of English Educators Society), 5(2), 185–191. DOI:

Ellis, R. (2008). A typology of written corrective feedback types. ELT Journal, 63(2), 97–107. DOI:

Farahani, A. A., & Salajegheh, S. (2015). Iranian teachers’ and students’ preferences for correction of classroom oral errors: Opinions and responses. Argentinian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 3(1), 14–25. Retrieved from

Fukuta, J., Tamura, Y., & Kawaguchi, Y. (2019). Written languaging with indirect feedback in writing revision: is feedback always effective? Language Awareness, 28(1), 1–14. DOI:

Gitsaki, C., & Althobaiti, A. (2010). ESL teachers’ use of corrective feedback and its effect on learners’ uptake. Journal of Asia TEFL, 7(1), 197–219.

Huang, S., & Renandya, W. A. (2020). Exploring the integration of automated feedback among lower-proficiency EFL learners. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 14(1), 15–26. DOI:

Ishikawa, M., & Révész, A. (2020). L2 learning and the frequency and quality of written languaging. Languaging in Language Learning and Teaching: A collection of empirical studies, 55, 219. DOI:

Jang, S.-S. (2011). Corrective Feedback and Language Anxiety in L2 Processing and Achievement *. English Teaching (Vol. 66). DOI:

Joe, L. W. (1992). A process approach to feedback in writing.

Lee, I. (2013). Research into practice: Written corrective feedback. Language Teaching, 46(1), 108–119. DOI:

Lee, I. (2017). Classroom Writing Assessment and Feedback in L2 School Contexts. Hongkong: Springer. DOI:

Liao, H.-C. (2016). Using automated writing evaluation to reduce grammar errors in writing. ELT Journal, 70(3), 308–319. DOI:

Mufanti, R. (2016). Highly proficiency learners on noticing strategy towards corrective feedback. Journal of English Educators Society, 1(1). DOI:

Myhill, D. A., Jones, S. M., Lines, H., & Watson, A. (2012). Re-thinking grammar: the impact of embedded grammar teaching on students’ writing and students’ metalinguistic understanding. Research Papers in Education, 27(2), 139–166. DOI:

Nemati, M., Alavi, S. M., Mohebbi, H., & Masjedlou, A. P. (2017a). Teachers’ writing proficiency and assessment ability: the missing link in teachers’ written corrective feedback practice in an Iranian EFL context. Language Testing in Asia, 7(1), 21. DOI:

Nemati, M., Alavi, S. M., Mohebbi, H., & Masjedlou, A. P. (2017b). Speaking out on behalf of the voiceless learners: Written corrective feedback for English language learners in Iran. Issues in Educational Research, 27(4), 822.

Nemati, M., Alavi, S. M., & Mohebbi, H. (2019). Assessing the effect of focused direct and focused indirect written corrective feedback on explicit and implicit knowledge of language learners. Language Testing in Asia, 9(1), 7. DOI:

Rassaei, E. (2015). The effects of foreign language anxiety on EFL learners’ perceptions of oral corrective feedback. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 9(2), 87–101. DOI:

Rouhi, A., Dibah, M., & Mohebbi, H. (2020). Assessing the effect of giving and receiving written corrective feedback on improving L2 writing accuracy: does giving and receiving feedback have fair mutual benefit?. Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education, 5(1), 1-13. DOI:

Saeb, F. (2017). Students’ and Teachers’ Perceptions and Preferences for Oral Corrective Feedback: Do They Match? International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 6(4), 32. DOI:

Saito, H. (1994). Teachers’ Practices and Students’ Preferences for Feedback on Second Language Writing: A Case Study of Adult ESL Learners. TESL Canada Journal, 11(2), 46. DOI:

Simard, D., & Zuniga, M. (2020). Exploring the mediating role of emotions expressed in L2 written languaging in ESL learner text revisions. Languaging in Language Learning and Teaching: A collection of empirical studies, 55, 287. DOI:

Thao, N. T. T., & Duy, L. H. (2017). Teachers’corrective feedback on english students’writing. European Journal of English Language Teaching, 2(1), 177–197.

Yoshida, R. (2008). Teachers’ choice and learners’ preference of corrective feedback types. Language Awareness, 17(1), 78–93. DOI:




How to Cite

Megawati, F., Kadarisman, A. E. ., & Agustina, S. (2022). Corrective Feedback: How has it been implemented in EFL Writing Class?. Education and Human Development Journal, 7(03), 1–13.