Environmental and Toxicology Management https://journal2.unusa.ac.id/index.php/ETM <p><strong>Environmental<em> and Toxicology Management</em></strong> is a peer-reviewed journal for the publication of original articles, <span style="font-weight: 400;">short communication</span>, review articles, and case studies on the fundamentals, applications, and management of environmental and toxicology. Environmental and Toxicology Management is published online with a frequency of three (3) issues per year (April, August, and November). Besides that, special issues of Environmental and Toxicology Management will be published non-periodically from time to time. </p> Universitas Nahdlatul Ulama Surabaya en-US Environmental and Toxicology Management 2777-0338 Hydrology method for environmental flows assessment of Johor River Basin under regulated and non-regulated conditions https://journal2.unusa.ac.id/index.php/ETM/article/view/3423 <p>This paper evaluates the capability of hydrology method for environmental flow (Eflow) assessment of Johor river basin under non-regulated and regulated conditions due to dam construction. Daily river flow data from 1971 to 2017 was used for the assessment. Generalized extreme value distribution was applied in order to estimate exceedance probabilities associated with historical observation data at different return periods. Environmental water allocations of the river at different ecological conditions were estimated using the intra-annual and inter-annual flows. This study has estimated the hydrological yearly conditions (very dry, dry, average and wet) for the river basin. Moreover, the method has also successfully proposed the environmental water allocations to achieve the desired ecological conditions, which are very good ecological (Eflow class A), good ecological (Eflow class B), medium ecological (Eflow class C), and deficient ecological conditions (Eflow class D). In general, the proposed method has been capable and acceptable for the assessment of Eflow of Johor river basin in line with sustainable water management goal.</p> Noor Hisham Ab Ghani Zulkifli Yusop Mohd Zaki Mat Amin Thian Siaw Yin Copyright (c) 2022 Noor Hisham Ab Ghani, Zulkifli Yusop, Mohd Zaki Mat Amin, Thian Siaw Yin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 2 2 1 3 10.33086/etm.v2i2.3423 Potential of rainwater harvesting in wilayah persekutuan Malaysia https://journal2.unusa.ac.id/index.php/ETM/article/view/3410 <p>Although Malaysia has abundant water resources, some parts of Malaysia are currently facing water shortage problems. The increasing demand for water has sparked initiatives to seek alternative water supplies. Rainwater harvesting has been proposed by governments as part of the solution to alleviate the problem of water scarcity. Literature related to rainwater harvesting is available from a variety of sources. In this study, rainfall was analysed as a crucial factor affecting RWHS efficiency, rainwater potential at different zones for residential, industrial, and commercial. In addition, the study evaluated the rainwater quality that obtain fresh rainfall and roof rainfall. Furthermore, potential of treatment technology for rainwater was suggested to optimate rainwater harvesting.</p> Anisa Ratnasari Arya Bhaskara Adiprabowo Andhika Gilang Al Afgani Atik Widiyanti Lily Oktavia Copyright (c) 2022 Anisa Ratnasari, Arya Bhaskara Adiprabowo, Andhika Gilang Al Afgani, Atik Widiyanti, Lily Oktavia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 2 2 4 7 10.33086/etm.v2i2.3410 Concept of green marketing in environment conservation: A Literature review https://journal2.unusa.ac.id/index.php/ETM/article/view/3335 <p>The concept of green marketing mix is as well as the conventional marketing mix refers to the satisfaction of customer needs, wants, and desires related to the maintenance and preservation of the environment. Consumers interest in environmental care creates opportunities for companies to apply green marketing and to increase sales. Green marketing becomes an alternative strategy helps the company's image, adds value to the company's business, even consumers demand green choices and will to pay higher prices. The marketing strategy includes the company's external and internal factors. The marketing mix strategy is the basic idea and generic function of marketing which consists of product, price, place, and promotion elements to shape the occurrence of sales. Developing the concept of green marketing mix (green marketing mix) is inseparable from the traditional 4P concepts (product, price, place, promotion), except a number of additional component are closely related to the intent of green marketing itself and other very influential things. The implementation of a green marketing strategy requires a fundamental, comprehensive and integrated approach in all functional aspects of marketing, including the overall marketing mix, such as product design, pricing, location and promotion.</p> Peter Onyonje Osiako Edza Aria Wikurendra Nour Salah Abdeljawad Copyright (c) 2022 Edza Aria Wikurendra, Peter Onyonje Osiako, Nour Salah Abdeljawad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 2 2 8 13 10.33086/etm.v2i2.3335 Groundwater quality assesment in Ropar wetland between summer season and winter season https://journal2.unusa.ac.id/index.php/ETM/article/view/3408 <p>Water covers 70% of the world’s total surface, but only around 3% of it is freshwater that humans may drink and utilize for other purposes. Because of fast growth in many nations, the quality of groundwater is no longer adequate for human consumption. The objective of the study is to assess the groundwater quality of 18 locations in the Ropar wetland in Punjab, India, in different seasons and different source groundwater. When compared to uncontaminated natural groundwater, the groundwater obtained from the test sites had higher pH values. The amount of groundwater pollution is higher in the summer than in the winter. However, there are many challenges face by the groundwater quality research. The groundwater quality in any region of the world is very important towards the survival of human being. Long-term consumption of polluted groundwater with high levels of heavy metals will result in health issues such as difficulty breathing and renal failure.</p> Goh Zhu hang Nelda Maelissa Loh Zhang Zhan Atik Widiyanti Winda Umarie Eddy Setiadi Soedjono Copyright (c) 2022 Goh Zhu hang, Nelda Maelissa, Loh Zhang Zhan, Atik Widiyanti, Winda Umarie, Eddy Setiadi Soedjono https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-09-06 2022-09-06 2 2 14 20 10.33086/etm.v2i2.3408 Green technology of natural fiber reinforced bio-composites as alternative sustainable product https://journal2.unusa.ac.id/index.php/ETM/article/view/3406 <p>Proactive strategies are being opted by metallurgical, foundry and manufacturing industries with respect to their experiences working with product designing based on product life cycle assessments. Without the consideration of the potential impacts on the life cycle, the development of new products would barely be sustainable. “Green” composites or bio-composites are fully degradable composites mainly consisting of a blend of biopolymer matrix and natural fibers which act as a reinforcing phase. In this study, natural bio-composite was reviewed as an alternative sustainable product. The types of natural fibers were also described as raw material of natural bio-composite. In addition, development natural fibers nowadays were mentioned. Furthermore, the application of natural fiber reinforced bio-composites was also presented.</p> Tony Hadibarata Winda Umarie Bieby Voijant Tangahu Putri Ramadhany Gilang Ananda Putra Copyright (c) 2022 Tony Hadibarata, Winda Umarie, Bieby Voijant Tangahu, Putri Ramadhany, Gilang Ananda Putra https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-09-23 2022-09-23 2 2 21 25 10.33086/etm.v2i2.3406 Water quality in Malaysia: review Manik Urai, Durian and Geh rivers https://journal2.unusa.ac.id/index.php/ETM/article/view/3409 <p><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">Water pollution issues and clean water needs have forced developing countries, such as Malaysia. Relating to clean water demand </span><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">for covering human activities, water quality index determine several water parameter that presents pollution problem in water. As a </span><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">water source, clean water in river is a critical concern. River water quality is according to natural process and anthropogenic activities. </span><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">River water is potential to be contaminated by industrial, domestic and agricultural activities. Thus, in this study, water quality and </span><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">availability in Manik Urai, Durian and Geh rivers were reviewed. Each pollutants was investigated, for instance BOD, COD, DO, SS, and </span><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">pH. Range of river water flow was also examined. Total water demand was mentioned. In addition, the impacts of drought in 1990-2016 </span><span dir="ltr" role="presentation">were assessed. However, review resulted that climate change has severe impact in water supply system.</span></p> Nur Syamimi Zaidi Bieby Voijant Tangahu Ghina Rizqina Ersa Widhowati Kesoema Wardhani Putri Ramadhany Tony Hadibarata Copyright (c) 2022 Nur Syamimi Zaidi, Bieby Voijant Tangahu, Ghina Rizqina Ersa, Widhowati Kesoema Wardhani, Putri Ramadhany, Tony Hadibarata https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-09-28 2022-09-28 2 2 26 30 10.33086/etm.v2i2.3409